GLOSSARY OF TERMS

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MALAY

ENGLISH

ABC 

 
Aceh Northern region of Sumatra
Ada-Ada Central ridge on a blade
Agang Shield
Akar Bahar Black coral used for hilts
Alang An intermediate type of Keris between the Panjang and the Bahari.
Alas People from Northern Sumatra Highlands
Ampa Kampilan cross-guard in Marnao
Anak Child
Anggaran Holster for wearing a Keris
Arit Sickle with a half moon blade pattern, often used in pairs or with another weapon.
Asang-Asang Clamps on Moro Kris blades
Aso Dragon/dog beast motif seen on Parang Ilang hilts and scabbards
Bade Bade Term improperly used for Badik
Badik Straight blade dagger
Bahari Means old-style in Bahasa, a very short version of the Panjang Keris
Bajau Dayak seafaring tribe
Balato Sword from Nias
Banaspati Name for the kala demon, means "lord of the forest", represented by a head with a burning fire.
Banji Pattern buil up from swastikas. One of the oldest pattern known in the Malay world.
Barong A leaf-shaped Moro chopper.
Batak Northern tribe of Sumatra
Battig A Moro curved dagger
Batu Latok A Dayak Parang 
Beladau Curved blade dagger
Belo Parang in Flores
Bener Straight
Bengkok Bent or crooked
Bentok Curved
Besi Iron
Bharairava Terrifying form of Siva
Bima A incarnation of Siva, the second of the Pandawa brothers,
Bolo A generic term for a sword or a chopper in the Philippines.
Budjak A Moro arrow
Bugis Seafaring tribe from Sulawesi
Buko A Land Dayak Parang similar to the Parang Latok
Bungkul Center base part of a blade
Buntut Swelling at the end of a scabbard
Busur Bow
Candi Temple, sanctuary
Cecekan Carved mask on Central Java Ukiran
Cengkrong Dapur for a blade, which first half is straight and single edged and the second half is slightly curved and double edged.
Ceplok Geometrical pattern consisting mostly of repeated squares, circles, ovals, etc...
Chandrasa Ceremonial axe with asymmetric shape (Indonesia 1st-3rd cent.) 
Cundrik A Keris or Pedang with dapur Cengkrong.

DEF

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Danganan A decorative Keris hilt.
Dapur Shape of the blade, name of the form
Datu A member of the Moro gentry
Dewa God
Dewi Goddess
Doreng Marble like wood veining mainly on Timoho Pelet
Dua Lalan Torajan buffalo knife
Dukun A shaman, a healer with magic power
Durga The fierce & inaccessible goddess of darkness, the destroying aspect of Parvati wife of Siva.
Dwisula Spear with two branches
Dayak A Borneo tribe
Empu Highly skilled smith with mystical powers.

GHI

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Gabilahan Carved Warangka from Madura
Gajah Elephant
Ganesa The elephant headed child of Siva and Parvati, god of wisdom, remover of obstacles and protector of artists.
Gambar Upper part of the keris scabbard
Gamelan Traditional percussion instruments ensemble
Gandar Lower part of the keris scabbard
Gandik Part of the keris blade
Gangya Maguindanoan term for ganja
Ganja Crosspiece of Keris blade
Ganja Iras Keris blade without a ganja
Garis miring A traditional Javanese design with diagonally aligned motifs.
Garuda Mythical bird with the head and wings of an eagle, the mount of Visnu.
Gayaman Casual warangka shape
Gayo People from Northern Sumatra Highlands
Golok Single edged cleaver, machete.
Goloro A Moro chopper.
Gorontalo Northern region of Sulawesi
Gunungan Tree of life
Hulu Hilt (in Malay)
Ikan Fish
Ilang Dayak people
Iras Original material

JKL

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Jalin A small projection at the innermost of the Kembang Kacang
Janngot Beard, indentation on the Kembang Kacang
Jawa demam Keris hilt name, translation "fewer stricken".
Jembiah Derived from the Arab Jambiya, has a curved double edged blade.
Jogjakarta Central Java Sultanate
Jono A Batak sword
Junggayan Flamboyant Kakatua Moro Kris or Barong pommel
Kacip Betel nut cracker
Kagok Java Ukiran shape
Kabeala Klewang from Sumba
Kakatua An artistic motif found on Moro pommels which represents the head of a cockatoo bird.
Kala The god of time, a grotesque and terrifying mask that wards off evil, often above candis doorways or niches. He symbolizes the rainbow that links humanity to gods.
Kalasan A Batak sword.
Kali Goddess represented as black naked women with a demoniac face. One of Sakti form.
Kalis Keris in Tausug (Moro)
Kampilan A very long Moro Klewang
Karambit Sharply curved ripping knife
Kayu Wood in Bahasa
Kelantan North East Malaysia Peninsula state
Kembang Kajang Elephant's trunk on the keris blade
Kendit A wood pattern found in keris hilts: a black stripe like a belt 
Keris Double edged thrusting dagger
Keris Brojol Most simple straight keris dapur
Keris Sajen All metal early shape of keris
Kinatah Relief decoration on a blade, often in gold. 
Klewang Type of single edged sword
Kodi A small dagger with a human carved hilt often sited on horse. Named after a tribe from Sumba.
Korambit see Karambit
Kraton A palace
Kris The English spelling for Keris, used for Philippines kris
Krowit Hook on a Dayak Parang blade.
Kruwingan Groove on a blade
Kudi A form of spear head or dagger
Kudup Turi A leaf design.
Kujang A form of Kudi from West Java
Lading Terus A dagger fitted with a spear head 
Ladrang Formal Warangka shape
Lampung Southern region of Sumatra
Landhian Keris hilt from Sumunep Madura
Lasara Mythical figure often seen on Balato hilt.
Lawi Curving feather as cock's tail
Lembing Type of spear
Ligan Keris from Bali and Lombok with a Pedang shaped blade
Lingga The phallus of Siva, the counterpart of the Yoni
Luk Wave of a blade
Lurus Straight

MNO

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Macassar Southern region of Sulawesi
Maguindanao "The people of the Flood plain" from Mindanao
Mahabharata Hindu epic poem relating the story of the battles between the Pandawa brothers and their cousins, the Korawa brothers.
Majapahit Old kingdom from East Java
Makara A mythical animal, usually depicted with a head like a crocodile and elephant's trunk; together with the Kala heads frames doorways and niche temples.
Marangi Cleaning of the blade ceremony to reveal its pattern
Maranao "The people of the Lake" from Mindanao
Mataram Old kingdom from Central Java
Mendak Hilt ring (in Malay)
Metuk Collar ring between tang and blade
Mindanao Southern Island of the Philippines
Minyak Oil
Miring Pamor laminations aligned to the plane of the blade
Mlumah Pamor laminations parallel to the horizontal plane of the blade
Moro Southern Philippines Muslim tribe
Mranggi A craftsman specialized in sheaths
Naga An ancient motif that symbolizes a mythical snake with a dragon head.
Nagarakertagama Old Javanese poem praising King Hayam Wuruk and describing his travel through East Java, composed by the court pet Mpu Prapanca in 1365; also called Desawarnana.
Nunggak Semi Central Java Ukiran shape
Okir Artistic style of the Muslims consisting of vegetative and floral motifs.

PQR

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Palembang Southern region of Sumatra
Palitai Mentawi double-edged dagger with a slender curved hilt.
Pamor Blade damascene pattern due to etching
Panabas A Moro double curved sword mounted on a long hilt. The blade is wider and heavier towards the tip and bends sharply backward close to the hilt.
Panah Arrow
Pandawa The five sons of King Pandu in the Mahabharata: Yudhishthira, Bima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sadewa.
Panday Moro sword-smith.
Panjang Means long in Bahasa, Keris with a very long blade from Sumatra or the Peninsula.
Parang A generic word for Malay cleavers and swords
Parang Ilang The Dayak Mandau.
Parang Latok A Dayak sword with an upturned heavy blade.
Parang Nabur A curved scimitar from Borneo similar to European saber.
Parang Pandit A Dayak Parang with an upturned heavy blade.
Pararaton Old Javanese literary work dating from the end of the fifteenth century, also called Book of the Kings.
Parvati Wife of Siva
Patani Southern province of Thailand of Malay influence.
Patrem A small keris for women
Pawang Magician
Pedang Sword
Pekakak Kingfisher bird
Pelet Wood pattern
Pendok Metal case of the scabbard
Pendok Blewah Pendok with an open front
Pencak-silat  Indonesian martial art
Pengukir An engraver who carves the wood.
Perak Western region of Malaysia
Perumpuan Woman
Pesi Tang of a blade
Pichit Finger pressed
Pinggang Central part of a blade
Pinute A straight blade Vishayan dagger.
Pirah Single-edged dagger with a slight upsweep used by the Basilan Moro.
Pisau A short, single edged utility knife
Pisau Rant The rattan knife with a long carved wooden hilt and a short single-edged blade.
Podang A Batak sword with a Tulwar type of hilt.
Pucuk Point of a blade
Puhan Tausug term for the hilt of a sword.
Punal Spanish term for dagger but commonly used in the Philippines for a small single-edged dagger.
Punto Tausug word for the ferrule on a sword hilt.
Pusaka Family heirloom
Raksasa Mythical guardians of holy places. Demons between gods and humans, led by Ravana.
Rama The sixt avatar of Visnu, his mission is to deliver the world of the Kshatriya worriers.
Ramayana Hindu epic poem, relating the heroic exploits of Rama and Siva, who is abducted by the demon King Rawana and freed with the help of Hanuman.
Rangda Rangda represents the archetypal widow in the Calonarang drama, and Durga in the Barong drama
Raut A slightly curved Batak knife with a pistol grip.
Rantai or Rante Long chain weapon with weights.
Rawana (Rahwana)  Chief of the Raksasas, abductor of Rama's wife, the lovely Sita. He has a fierce large head with long tusks. 
Rencong Slightly curved dagger from Aceh
Rekan A pamor rekan is a pamor designed purposely by the Empu.
Rentaka Swivel gun
Ricikan Details of a Keris Blade

STU

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Sajen A sacrificial ceremony. Used also to name the early Keris, forged in one piece including the hilt.
Sakin Short thin straight bladed dagger from Sumatra
Sakti Siva spouse.
Salungan Scabbard in Maguindanoan
Sanak A pamor with an undefined pattern due to poor quality of iron or workmanship.
Samal "Companions of the Sea" from Zamboanga
Sampir Cross piece of Keris sheath
Sampak Cross piece of Kampilan hilt
Sangkletan A long horn spur to hook a Wedung on the belt
Sandag Walikat Simple shape of warangka
Sarong Weapon sheath, Indonesian waist cloth
Sekar Flower
Sekin A Tumbuk Lada with a protuberance on the blade. Means knife in Arabic.
Selut Hilt ring
Sewar Northern Sumatra native name for Siwah
Silat Malay martial art
Sinarasa Inlay technique
Singa Mythical lion. 
Siraui A dagger from Sumatra, Minangkabau.
Siva One of three most important gods of Hinduism, the god of destruction and renewal.
Siwah Sumatran slightly curved single-edged dagger
Solo Other name for Surakarta
Sulu Archipelago and island of South Philippines
Sunggingan A painted Warangka
Sor-soran The larger part of a keris blade, where the ricikan are 
Srivijaya Old kingdom from South Sumatra
Sumpitan Blow pipe
Sunda Western region of Java
Sundi Kampilan hilt
Sundang A working bolo, term also used for a Moro Kris swords.
Surakarta Central Java Sultanate
Swassa Alloy of gold and silver
Tagub Barong sheath
Taji A small blade for cock fight
Tajon Keris from Patani
Talibon A Philippines Visayan dagger.
Tangguh Historical period, a reference to date the Keris
Tausug "The people of the sea current" from the Sulu Archipelago
Tengah Middle part of a Keris blade
Timoho Yellow wood used for Warangka
Tjabang A straight double edged dagger with a double guard, of Chinese influence, used in Pencak Silat
Tjo Jang A Klewang from Aceh
Tombak Spear
Tongkat A wooden stick used for Pentjak-silat
Toradja Central region of Sulawesi
Toya A wooden staff used for Pentjak-silat
Trembolo Chatoyant grain wood for warangka
Trisula Spear with three branches
Tumbuk Lada Straight blade dagger from Sumatra
Tuah Magic power
Tungo Kampilan blade
Ukiran Literally means carving, term used in Java for the Keris hilt
Ulu-Ulu Moro Kris hilt in Maguindanoan

VWXYZ

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Varja Ritual object representing a thunderbolt.
Varuna The god of sea and is usually represented as a fair complexioned man riding a Makara. He carries a noose. In the sea, Varuna keeps vigil on the various demons of the ocean. 
Visnu One of three most important gods of Hinduism, the god of preservation
Warangan Mix of lime and arsenic to clean keris blades
Warangka Scabbard
Wayang Generic name for the various type of traditional Javanese theater.
Wedung A Java court short chopper
Wideng Part of the Keris blade.
Wilah Blade
Yogyakarta Central Java Sultanate
Yoni The sexual organ of Parvati
Zamboanga Mindanao North West Peninsula
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OLD BLADES - Malay World Edged Weapons.  Copyright 2000 - 2007
Revised: 2009-03-29